The need for written language appeared as soon as people realized the importance of information transfer on distance and time. At first he tried to convey my thoughts with pictures, have some sort of sign a letter that called pictography (pictus – written with inks, graph – write). But to interpret the drawings clearly different people is impossible.
A well known case when the Persian king Darius, having received a “letter” from Scythians (bird, a mouse, a frog and 5 arrows) considered that the Scythians submit to him, while his military Gobryas “read” message “is exactly the opposite”.
Needed a system of marks, adopted by all or a large group of people. Evidence of this conditional writing back to the second half of the fourth Millennium B.C. It was a Sumerian writing, borrowed later other peoples of Mesopotamia. The signs were squeezed out of clay tablets stick with rectangular base. The corners of the rectangle left wedge-shaped deepenings.
The heyday of cuneiform literature fall reign of the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal (VII century BC). It was the fearsome conqueror, but at the same time educated man of his time, an avid book lover and collector. Continue reading
Before it appeared in Ancient Rome, papyrus, local residents like the Greeks used for writing palm leaves, but more often – lime bast. Actually, one of the values of the Latin word “liber” (book) just means “lub”.
In General it should be noted that in the era of the Roman Republic and the early Roman Empire, the Latin writing system has been rapidly developing. Came into use new writing materials, mainly papyrus. Along with direct, quadrangular capital font, suitable for cutting down on stone or other solid object, Rome (as well as, by the way, and Greece), a new font is rounded, more flexible and elegant, the so-called “uncial”and italics – “cursive”.
Roman ancient book was in the form of a scroll, screw on a stick with thickened ends; on the upper end was attached to the tab with the designation of the title, which peeped out from a leather case (an analogue of modern binding). To carry these scrolls were placed in a round basket. In libraries such books in the scrolls were not put, and laid on the shelf so that the labels were in view. He wrote on one side, or a single vertical column, the length of which was equal to the length of the scroll or next of many parallel columns.
Roman bookstores, a seller of ancient books, served as the meeting place of writers, scholars and lovers of literature. When these stores were available rooms for reading and even reading rooms, where for a small fee you can view the new or compare your copy of the famous works so that was fixed grammatical kept for this purpose in the store and copy the hall. Roman books were relatively cheap, as the production of own papyrus, replacing imports from Egypt, to that possessed. In addition to ordinary cheap instances, met ancient books – the wonders of calligraphy, sumptuously illustrated instances and even miniature book (Cicero allegedly met instance of “Iliad” by Homer, who could fit in the walnut shells). Continue reading
The next place, where he also began to use papyrus for records and creation of ancient books, steel ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. It is believed that the writing, and the papyrus as the prototype of the future of paper, about X or IX century BC in Greece brought the Phoenicians. This fact Herodotus writes galikarnassky (484-425, BC), the Greek historian, author of the first comprehensive historical treatise – “History”. The writings of Herodotus was of great importance for ancient culture, Cicero generally called him the “father of history”. To the Phoenicians, the Greeks and the Romans used for records of tree bark and other materials. Herodotus said that the Greek term for papyrus as material for records was “Biblion”, and for the book – “Byblos”, which comes from the name of the Phoenician port town Byblos, through which papyrus was exported from Egypt to Greece.
Before Greece got papyrus, there was used a variety of materials for writing. The most common and cheap was a piece of crock – ostracon. On ostrakons were mostly economic record, as, for example, Greek literary texts found on them only occasionally. Used for writing the Greeks and palm leaves.
Pliny mentions among other writing materials, common at that time in Greece, “plumbea volumina” – lead rolls. And on the island of Rhodes archaeologists had found such a roll. Thickness of the lead sheet was only a third of a millimeter, so he folded easily enough. The lead was recorded prayers and incantations, is lowered into the grave with the dead person. The longest known texts written in the lead – epic poem Hesiod “Works and days”. As on palm leaf, and the lead, the letters drew a sharp metal instrument, occasionally eating and ink. Continue reading
Genre font directory has a venerable history and its origin proofs on which the first kovalerchik, former simultaneously printers, checking the quality of their characters before starting to set. The first known leaf samples font 1486, belongs to the German typographer Erhard Raccolto. One of the first known directories font samples in the form of the book was printed in 1658 in the Dutch city of Leiden renowned publishing firm of Elsevier fonts from the printer scientist-orientalist Thomas van Erpe (Arminius). Font directories printing houses were widespread in the era of metal set, but with the introduction of photocomposition the need for them has considerably decreased, and gradually they almost completely disappeared. Now font capabilities of each printing depended not already on the number of purchased cryptonomicon or machine matrices, and on the specific system type-setting machinery, equipped with the same or similar in the figure fonts. It is even more so now, when it is possible to set a huge number of fonts that almost identically reproduced on any pin devices.
However, the catalogue of companies that make and release the font foundries, manufacturers galley equipment, design bureaus) is still of interest. At least, because always interesting sources of fonts. In addition, the old font catalogs-irreplaceable sources of inspiration for the next generation of font designers. Modern directories allow us to imagine the world on font in all its beauty and complexity. Continue reading
Many of us have grown up on stories about the brilliant detective. In addition, many with pleasure watching the film adaptation based on the stories by Arthur Conan Doyle. However, in the course of transfer of the information by word of mouth have any effect “broken telephone” and we’re not quite accurately understand the image of the great Sherlock.
Many fans of Sherlock Holmes indignantly believe that is created on the basis of short stories Doyle movies, should be just the fruit of inspiration of the Director and not get attached to Sherlock Holmes. In short, it is better to remove the story of one Mr. Smith, on the basis of short stories than to remake the original story and call it loud “the adventures of Sherlock Holmes”.
Of course, outrage is justified, because the true hero Doyle was not like his film “twins”.
Sherlock Holmes was a “maniac purity”. In the movie, where Sherlock plays Downey Jr, the image of the mystery, to put it mildly, dirty: Sherlock wear clothes for a couple of sizes bigger is not always clean, and about the hair and say terrible. However, in the story “the Dog Baskerviley”, Sherlock Holmes, being in ambush in the hut ask you to bring him clean sheets and wash clothes. That is, while in the field, he does not forget about their own health. Continue reading
Russian poets and writers came up with a lot of new words: substance, thermometer (Lomonosov), industry (Karamzin), botch (Saltykov-Shchedrin), to take a (Dostoevsky), incompetent (Nord), tired physically (Khlebnikov).
Interesting facts about the writers.
Pushkin more than 70 epigraphs, Gogol – not less than 20, almost as much Turgenev.
Korney Chukovsky actually called Nikolai Vasilyevich Korneychukov.
Voltaire made fun of the Duke of Rohan for his arrogance. The Duke ordered his servants to beat Voltaire that was done. Voltaire caused the Duke to a duel, but the Duke refused, as Voltaire was not a nobleman.
Starting to work on a new piece, Balzac was locked in the room for one or two months, and firmly closed the shutters, that they did not penetrate the light. He wrote candlelight, dressed in a Bathrobe, 18 hours daily.
Mark TWAIN was born in 1835, when the vicinity of Earth flew Halley’s comet. He predicted that he would die during her next appearance. So, in 1910. Continue reading