The oldest book in the world
Date of the earliest writing and the date of the most ancient, remaining in our time, books are different dates and in two different areas of research. In Ancient Egypt to record from the times of the First Dynasty (3000-2853 years BC) was used papyrus – paper made from the stems of the same name of reeds that grew on the marshy banks of the Nile (modern English the word “paper”, denoting the paper, it was derived from the words “papyrus”). Of course, ancient books of that era were not preserved till our days.
The most ancient books of the Veda
The most ancient books found on Earth are the books of the third king of the Fifth Dynasty Neferirkare Kakai. These hieratic papyrus dated to about 2400 B.C. and were found in Abusive (Royal necropolis near the ancient Memphis, a few kilometers North of the necropolis of Saqqara, in Abusive survived 14 step pyramids V dynasty) in a doleful temple of Tsar Neferirkare Kakai. In 1950 the papyri were acquired by the British Museum from a private collector and currently kept in the British Museum in London under the registration number 1950,0209.1.9 (big number 10735.9) in the Department of Ancient Egypt and Sudan.
Interestingly, many Greek authors managed to write their ancient books long before pismennosti surprisingly, the most ancient Greek book was found there, in Abusive. It happened on the excavations in 1902 at the cemetery, beside the mummies of deceased Greek, was found in the form of a scroll fragment of a poem Timotheus “Persians”. The document is dated to approximately 450-360 year BC and composed in Greek. In addition, this ancient book is a papyrus in the form of a scroll, while the accounting books of Kukai was conducted on papyrus sheet.
Papyrus made simple way: with a high 2-meter reed stems removed the hard shell, core, cut into long strips, which are close to one another was laid out on the moistened with water table; from above impose the second layer strips perpendicular to the first, pressed down with the resulting sheet in the goods, provided this juice firmly glued both layers; the resulting sheet circumcised, levelled and covered with a thin layer of flour glue is now on papyrus possible to write.
But, unfortunately, folded in half this sheet was impossible papyrus immediately broke. In fact, ancient books came to light because the Egyptians invented the first roll of the tube, and then to stick together in the scrolls of individual sheets of papyrus for the convenience of their storage. This contributed to the fact that the books were kept much better because of losing a separate sheet of paper is much easier than a whole bunch.
Roman writer, author of “Natural history”, Pliny the Elder mentions in his writings that in Ancient Egypt sometimes used linen books – “libri lintei”. However, on the tissues of the Egyptians wrote from time immemorial, for example, recording prayers on the bandage, which swaddled mummy. And arrived in Egypt foreign traders conducting their records on canvas (in the III century of our era on the same material has led his diary Emperor Lucius Domici Aurelian). However, none of these materials have not acquired a decisive importance in the history of the ancient book.