Book fonts and albums fonts Slovenian
Genre font directory has a venerable history and its origin proofs on which the first kovalerchik, former simultaneously printers, checking the quality of their characters before starting to set. The first known leaf samples font 1486, belongs to the German typographer Erhard Raccolto. One of the first known directories font samples in the form of the book was printed in 1658 in the Dutch city of Leiden renowned publishing firm of Elsevier fonts from the printer scientist-orientalist Thomas van Erpe (Arminius). Font directories printing houses were widespread in the era of metal set, but with the introduction of photocomposition the need for them has considerably decreased, and gradually they almost completely disappeared. Now font capabilities of each printing depended not already on the number of purchased cryptonomicon or machine matrices, and on the specific system type-setting machinery, equipped with the same or similar in the figure fonts. It is even more so now, when it is possible to set a huge number of fonts that almost identically reproduced on any pin devices.
However, the catalogue of companies that make and release the font foundries, manufacturers galley equipment, design bureaus) is still of interest. At least, because always interesting sources of fonts. In addition, the old font catalogs-irreplaceable sources of inspiration for the next generation of font designers. Modern directories allow us to imagine the world on font in all its beauty and complexity.
Among the first directory Slovenian albums were fonts famous Parisian slavoliya P. Fournier (the middle of the XVIII century) and his two-volume work Manuel Typographique (Typographical guide) 1766 The same name was a collection of fonts-the end of all life wonderful Italian Poinconnet, slavoliya and beetle J.. Bodoni, published by his widow in 1818
In Russia, the first font directory appeared V, in St. Petersburg in the printing house of the Academy of Sciences. In 1761 was released the first font directory printing house of the Moscow University. Until the end of the XVIII century was published three directories of these printers and fonts directory of the Imperial printing house in Saint-Petersburg. All these printing houses had their foundries and supplied fonts smaller institutions. From the end of XVIII century in Russia, increasing the number of printing houses and specialized Slovenian, and in the XIX C. they were released more than 40 samples of the fonts and the font directories. Among them were such big companies as printing S. She, A. Seeds, foundries J. of Revillon, O. Lehmann, M. wolf. In 1895 in St Petersburg was established koolitee institution of Berthold, some of the fonts which we still use today.
From the beginning of XX century to 1914 in Russia published at least ten samples of the fonts and the font directories. On this (possibly incomplete) figures it is possible to understand how rapidly expanded font design in the second half of the XIX and early XX centuries: each of these publications contained several hundred samples of typesetting fonts. Had his own footage of font designers and poisonshow, and Russia in this area almost went along with the rest of the “printing” powers.
After 1917 from all of that left very little. Font design completely stopped. Personnel skilled workers disappeared, foundries closed, the fonts in the printing houses were scattered and partly went to the facility. The results of the first post-revolutionary decade summed font catalogue of trust “polygraph” 1927 It was an attempt of systematization and bring some order of what is left. It contains about 140 text and header font (about 90 names)as well as individual digits, artificial marks, lines and ornaments. In the future the number of fonts have declined even further: the Commission on standardization of fonts in the 1930s developed the standard OST 1337 “Fonts gurtovyi”, which included only 31 headset (according to modern classification 20 headsets, nocentini).
Although in the late 30-ies of font design in the USSR was resumed, font catalogs initially produced only printing house. The first consolidated Catalog of hand and machine fonts”, comparable to the pre-revolutionary and included a significant number of recently developed fonts, was released after nearly ten years of training in the publishing house “Book” only in 1966, it includes 51 headset (104 scripts), fractions, and other artificial marks, borders, ornaments and jewellery. However, in printing was used mainly Literary headset, as well as Ordinary new and Coffee chopped. Introduction of photocomposition little changed the situation with Russian fonts, although along with the import of inlaid technique appeared several fonts Western development (times, Helvetica, Gill sans, and others). Fonts our phototypesetting assortment repeated the fonts metal set, which is reflected in the following publication in the catalogue-directory “Photo fonts, 1983, “the Book”. From 18 Russian-Latin typefaces (53 scripts), placed in it, only two headsets had no analogues in the metal. A completely new section was fonts special graphic shapes (11 Suite, 21 mark for a set of languages Armenian, Georgian, Greek, Arabic, Hindi, Bengali and Kannada). In 1985 he released the second volume of this directory, but it has not got the new fonts.
Wide distribution of personal computers and desktop publishing, the rise of publishing and fonts advertising led from about 1990 to a sharp increase in the production of typesetting fonts. In five years the number of fonts in Russia are several times higher than what was done for the previous half century. However font directories in recent times in Russia there is quite a bit. The firm “Intermikro” was released two directories. Just released last, third, catalog their typesetting fonts firm “Paragraph”. About it I would like to say more detail.
Now everyone with a computer and a software package for drawing letters, can consider itself typeface designer, so most of the modern Cyrillic fonts performed much worse technically and aesthetically, than at the time of their centralized production. However headset firm Paragraph stand out for their quality-their designs team of professional designers with many years of experience in the Department of typesetting fonts, Napoliroma (the only institution in the country, more than half a century designed fonts for printing). Paragraph now has Russia’s largest library of digital fonts. In a directory named paratype 95 entered 80 suit (about 220 faces), including 60 handsets Latin-Cyrillic graphics (182 scripts), signs of phonetics, mathematics, music, ornaments, Arabic, Georgian, Greek and Hebrew fonts. This consistent development font library in our uncomfortable time is a phenomenon unique in its kind: many similar organisations have changed the occupation or broken up. Composition of directory is also unique. There are presented and the old fonts Soviet Polygraphy: Academic, Baltika, Coffee chopped, headset Lazursky, School, Bulvarnaya, and newly developed Cyrillic version of the famous Latin fonts: Newton (times), Pragmatics (Helvetica),Futures (Futura), Preset (Frutiger), Parsecs (Brush), Corrida (Slogan) and others. Some fonts is a digital version of the pre-revolutionary fonts manual dialing: Bernhard, Hermes, Gerold, Carolles, which the designers of the company “Paragraph” collected literally one character from the old directory, thereby restoring Russian font traditions. Other projects of independent designers, with which the agreement on the licensing of their fonts. Recently in advertising have been used fonts, imitating handwriting.
The first such type in Russia was Betina Script from the library paratype, now it gained another few such handsets. Super-narrow decorative fonts are also popular nowadays firm “Paragraph” was one of the first who offered on the local market original headset Matterhorn, the Mont Blanc, Tauern.