Before it appeared in Ancient Rome, papyrus, local residents like the Greeks used for writing palm leaves, but more often – lime bast. Actually, one of the values of the Latin word “liber” (book) just means “lub”.
In General it should be noted that in the era of the Roman Republic and the early Roman Empire, the Latin writing system has been rapidly developing. Came into use new writing materials, mainly papyrus. Along with direct, quadrangular capital font, suitable for cutting down on stone or other solid object, Rome (as well as, by the way, and Greece), a new font is rounded, more flexible and elegant, the so-called “uncial”and italics – “cursive”.
Roman ancient book was in the form of a scroll, screw on a stick with thickened ends; on the upper end was attached to the tab with the designation of the title, which peeped out from a leather case (an analogue of modern binding). To carry these scrolls were placed in a round basket. In libraries such books in the scrolls were not put, and laid on the shelf so that the labels were in view. He wrote on one side, or a single vertical column, the length of which was equal to the length of the scroll or next of many parallel columns.
Roman bookstores, a seller of ancient books, served as the meeting place of writers, scholars and lovers of literature. When these stores were available rooms for reading and even reading rooms, where for a small fee you can view the new or compare your copy of the famous works so that was fixed grammatical kept for this purpose in the store and copy the hall. Roman books were relatively cheap, as the production of own papyrus, replacing imports from Egypt, to that possessed. In addition to ordinary cheap instances, met ancient books – the wonders of calligraphy, sumptuously illustrated instances and even miniature book (Cicero allegedly met instance of “Iliad” by Homer, who could fit in the walnut shells). Continue reading
The next place, where he also began to use papyrus for records and creation of ancient books, steel ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. It is believed that the writing, and the papyrus as the prototype of the future of paper, about X or IX century BC in Greece brought the Phoenicians. This fact Herodotus writes galikarnassky (484-425, BC), the Greek historian, author of the first comprehensive historical treatise – “History”. The writings of Herodotus was of great importance for ancient culture, Cicero generally called him the “father of history”. To the Phoenicians, the Greeks and the Romans used for records of tree bark and other materials. Herodotus said that the Greek term for papyrus as material for records was “Biblion”, and for the book – “Byblos”, which comes from the name of the Phoenician port town Byblos, through which papyrus was exported from Egypt to Greece.
Before Greece got papyrus, there was used a variety of materials for writing. The most common and cheap was a piece of crock – ostracon. On ostrakons were mostly economic record, as, for example, Greek literary texts found on them only occasionally. Used for writing the Greeks and palm leaves.
Pliny mentions among other writing materials, common at that time in Greece, “plumbea volumina” – lead rolls. And on the island of Rhodes archaeologists had found such a roll. Thickness of the lead sheet was only a third of a millimeter, so he folded easily enough. The lead was recorded prayers and incantations, is lowered into the grave with the dead person. The longest known texts written in the lead – epic poem Hesiod “Works and days”. As on palm leaf, and the lead, the letters drew a sharp metal instrument, occasionally eating and ink. Continue reading
Date of the earliest writing and the date of the most ancient, remaining in our time, books are different dates and in two different areas of research. In Ancient Egypt to record from the times of the First Dynasty (3000-2853 years BC) was used papyrus – paper made from the stems of the same name of reeds that grew on the marshy banks of the Nile (modern English the word “paper”, denoting the paper, it was derived from the words “papyrus”). Of course, ancient books of that era were not preserved till our days.
The most ancient books of the Veda
The most ancient books found on Earth are the books of the third king of the Fifth Dynasty Neferirkare Kakai. These hieratic papyrus dated to about 2400 B.C. and were found in Abusive (Royal necropolis near the ancient Memphis, a few kilometers North of the necropolis of Saqqara, in Abusive survived 14 step pyramids V dynasty) in a doleful temple of Tsar Neferirkare Kakai. In 1950 the papyri were acquired by the British Museum from a private collector and currently kept in the British Museum in London under the registration number 1950,0209.1.9 (big number 10735.9) in the Department of Ancient Egypt and Sudan.
Interestingly, many Greek authors managed to write their ancient books long before pismennosti surprisingly, the most ancient Greek book was found there, in Abusive. It happened on the excavations in 1902 at the cemetery, beside the mummies of deceased Greek, was found in the form of a scroll fragment of a poem Timotheus “Persians”. The document is dated to approximately 450-360 year BC and composed in Greek. In addition, this ancient book is a papyrus in the form of a scroll, while the accounting books of Kukai was conducted on papyrus sheet. Continue reading