Before it appeared in Ancient Rome, papyrus, local residents like the Greeks used for writing palm leaves, but more often – lime bast. Actually, one of the values of the Latin word “liber” (book) just means “lub”.
In General it should be noted that in the era of the Roman Republic and the early Roman Empire, the Latin writing system has been rapidly developing. Came into use new writing materials, mainly papyrus. Along with direct, quadrangular capital font, suitable for cutting down on stone or other solid object, Rome (as well as, by the way, and Greece), a new font is rounded, more flexible and elegant, the so-called “uncial”and italics – “cursive”.
Roman ancient book was in the form of a scroll, screw on a stick with thickened ends; on the upper end was attached to the tab with the designation of the title, which peeped out from a leather case (an analogue of modern binding). To carry these scrolls were placed in a round basket. In libraries such books in the scrolls were not put, and laid on the shelf so that the labels were in view. He wrote on one side, or a single vertical column, the length of which was equal to the length of the scroll or next of many parallel columns.
Roman bookstores, a seller of ancient books, served as the meeting place of writers, scholars and lovers of literature. When these stores were available rooms for reading and even reading rooms, where for a small fee you can view the new or compare your copy of the famous works so that was fixed grammatical kept for this purpose in the store and copy the hall. Roman books were relatively cheap, as the production of own papyrus, replacing imports from Egypt, to that possessed. In addition to ordinary cheap instances, met ancient books – the wonders of calligraphy, sumptuously illustrated instances and even miniature book (Cicero allegedly met instance of “Iliad” by Homer, who could fit in the walnut shells). Continue reading
Very cool idea and steep its implementation!
Benches, made in the form of huge books opened on the most interesting place. Want – just sit down, want – read works of Turkish classical and well-known poets, want – shoot and tell about them.
It is impossible to ignore or pass by!
In General, all those who arrive in Istanbul, note the incredible contrast of the city, an incredible number of historical monuments, the grandeur of the most famous mosques, the ability to sell everything and everywhere, … the list goes on.
But it is necessary to note one more feature of this giant metropolis – a great well thought-out infrastructure, successful “vpisyvalas” modernity among the historical objects, organization of transport and all the activities of the city authorities.
To be fair, in this city there is something to learn from our actions, governors and all who are more accustomed to complaining about the lack of money than to do in their cities so that tourists could make the report even on conventional benches. Continue reading
Russian poets and writers came up with a lot of new words: substance, thermometer (Lomonosov), industry (Karamzin), botch (Saltykov-Shchedrin), to take a (Dostoevsky), incompetent (Nord), tired physically (Khlebnikov).
Interesting facts about the writers.
Pushkin more than 70 epigraphs, Gogol – not less than 20, almost as much Turgenev.
Korney Chukovsky actually called Nikolai Vasilyevich Korneychukov.
Voltaire made fun of the Duke of Rohan for his arrogance. The Duke ordered his servants to beat Voltaire that was done. Voltaire caused the Duke to a duel, but the Duke refused, as Voltaire was not a nobleman.
Starting to work on a new piece, Balzac was locked in the room for one or two months, and firmly closed the shutters, that they did not penetrate the light. He wrote candlelight, dressed in a Bathrobe, 18 hours daily.
Mark TWAIN was born in 1835, when the vicinity of Earth flew Halley’s comet. He predicted that he would die during her next appearance. So, in 1910. Continue reading