Fertile Crescent

The first script (cuneiform)

The need for written language appeared as soon as people realized the importance of information transfer on distance and time. At first he tried to convey my thoughts with pictures, have some sort of sign a letter that called pictography (pictus – written with inks, graph – write). But to interpret the drawings clearly different people is impossible.

A well known case when the Persian king Darius, having received a “letter” from Scythians (bird, a mouse, a frog and 5 arrows) considered that the Scythians submit to him, while his military Gobryas “read” message “is exactly the opposite”.

Needed a system of marks, adopted by all or a large group of people. Evidence of this conditional writing back to the second half of the fourth Millennium B.C. It was a Sumerian writing, borrowed later other peoples of Mesopotamia. The signs were squeezed out of clay tablets stick with rectangular base. The corners of the rectangle left wedge-shaped deepenings.

The heyday of cuneiform literature fall reign of the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal (VII century BC). It was the fearsome conqueror, but at the same time educated man of his time, an avid book lover and collector. Continue reading

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