Middle East

The first script (cuneiform)

The need for written language appeared as soon as people realized the importance of information transfer on distance and time. At first he tried to convey my thoughts with pictures, have some sort of sign a letter that called pictography (pictus – written with inks, graph – write). But to interpret the drawings clearly different people is impossible.

A well known case when the Persian king Darius, having received a “letter” from Scythians (bird, a mouse, a frog and 5 arrows) considered that the Scythians submit to him, while his military Gobryas “read” message “is exactly the opposite”.

Needed a system of marks, adopted by all or a large group of people. Evidence of this conditional writing back to the second half of the fourth Millennium B.C. It was a Sumerian writing, borrowed later other peoples of Mesopotamia. The signs were squeezed out of clay tablets stick with rectangular base. The corners of the rectangle left wedge-shaped deepenings.

The heyday of cuneiform literature fall reign of the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal (VII century BC). It was the fearsome conqueror, but at the same time educated man of his time, an avid book lover and collector. Continue reading

Unusual Istanbul. Bench-book

Very cool idea and steep its implementation!

Benches, made in the form of huge books opened on the most interesting place. Want – just sit down, want – read works of Turkish classical and well-known poets, want – shoot and tell about them.

It is impossible to ignore or pass by!

In General, all those who arrive in Istanbul, note the incredible contrast of the city, an incredible number of historical monuments, the grandeur of the most famous mosques, the ability to sell everything and everywhere, … the list goes on.

But it is necessary to note one more feature of this giant metropolis – a great well thought-out infrastructure, successful “vpisyvalas” modernity among the historical objects, organization of transport and all the activities of the city authorities.

To be fair, in this city there is something to learn from our actions, governors and all who are more accustomed to complaining about the lack of money than to do in their cities so that tourists could make the report even on conventional benches. Continue reading

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