The need for written language appeared as soon as people realized the importance of information transfer on distance and time. At first he tried to convey my thoughts with pictures, have some sort of sign a letter that called pictography (pictus – written with inks, graph – write). But to interpret the drawings clearly different people is impossible.
A well known case when the Persian king Darius, having received a “letter” from Scythians (bird, a mouse, a frog and 5 arrows) considered that the Scythians submit to him, while his military Gobryas “read” message “is exactly the opposite”.
Needed a system of marks, adopted by all or a large group of people. Evidence of this conditional writing back to the second half of the fourth Millennium B.C. It was a Sumerian writing, borrowed later other peoples of Mesopotamia. The signs were squeezed out of clay tablets stick with rectangular base. The corners of the rectangle left wedge-shaped deepenings.
The heyday of cuneiform literature fall reign of the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal (VII century BC). It was the fearsome conqueror, but at the same time educated man of his time, an avid book lover and collector. Continue reading
Well, is it possible to imagine the modern world without books? Professional books, children’s books, novels, encyclopedias, tales…. so many of Them, they are all so different, they are so interesting. Our article is about the great books of the world, too curious, so we read and wonder.
What book can safely is the smallest in the world? This is to all of us familiar with the book of Anton Chekhov “Chameleon”, the size of which comprise only 0.9 x 0,9 mm 30 tiny pages with 11 lines of text on each and even 3 color pictures. Imprinted and made the cover of this miracle in 1996 Aigarino.
The title of the thickest among printed books, you can assign the book Internet – WIKIPEDIA. What it is? This is actually a collection of articles from the world wide web, which were printed as one large volume lover of books Rob Matthews. As a result 5000 pages of printed text.
But in Italy Rio Coselli was keen to be a very interesting lesson – he gathers a collection of the most boring books in the world. Today, the collection has grown to 10,000 volumes. True to his passion associated funny moments. So, say, one Italian writer, a pretty bad by the way, after the news that all of his manuscripts were in the famous collection, nearly committed suicide. Continue reading
Before it appeared in Ancient Rome, papyrus, local residents like the Greeks used for writing palm leaves, but more often – lime bast. Actually, one of the values of the Latin word “liber” (book) just means “lub”.
In General it should be noted that in the era of the Roman Republic and the early Roman Empire, the Latin writing system has been rapidly developing. Came into use new writing materials, mainly papyrus. Along with direct, quadrangular capital font, suitable for cutting down on stone or other solid object, Rome (as well as, by the way, and Greece), a new font is rounded, more flexible and elegant, the so-called “uncial”and italics – “cursive”.
Roman ancient book was in the form of a scroll, screw on a stick with thickened ends; on the upper end was attached to the tab with the designation of the title, which peeped out from a leather case (an analogue of modern binding). To carry these scrolls were placed in a round basket. In libraries such books in the scrolls were not put, and laid on the shelf so that the labels were in view. He wrote on one side, or a single vertical column, the length of which was equal to the length of the scroll or next of many parallel columns.
Roman bookstores, a seller of ancient books, served as the meeting place of writers, scholars and lovers of literature. When these stores were available rooms for reading and even reading rooms, where for a small fee you can view the new or compare your copy of the famous works so that was fixed grammatical kept for this purpose in the store and copy the hall. Roman books were relatively cheap, as the production of own papyrus, replacing imports from Egypt, to that possessed. In addition to ordinary cheap instances, met ancient books – the wonders of calligraphy, sumptuously illustrated instances and even miniature book (Cicero allegedly met instance of “Iliad” by Homer, who could fit in the walnut shells). Continue reading
At this point, going into any bookshop, on its shelves you will find a great variety of printed literature. The price is the most diverse. You read the synopsis and decide: whether to pay such money? What ate you will be offered a book worth millions of dollars? Below is a list of such books prove that there are indeed valuable editions.
To date, the most expensive book is considered “Leicester code, Leonardo da Vinci and its cost is $44.6 mln It was named so in honour of the Earl of Leicester, who bought the manuscript in 1717. This is the original book Leonardo where it actually invented the mirror font described his reflections on natural phenomena and things. A kind of diary thinker just not read – you need a mirror in which you can parse font written. At the moment this rare masterpiece owns Microsoft founder bill gates and periodically puts it in museums.
Are you willing to pay $11 million for the book “Birds of America”? Remarkable feature of this edition is not so much the content, much larger. It was released in the U.S. in 1827-1838, only 200 copies in giant format, which is itself the Audubon, the author of the book, called “double elephant folio – size 127 cm in height. The book consists of 435 prints, hand-painted, size 90 60 cm, where the birds are painted in original size. We can safely say that this is a complete collection of art in one book. 119 instances are still kept in museums and 39 in private collections. The appearance of this book is a real sensation at the auction. Continue reading
Very cool idea and steep its implementation!
Benches, made in the form of huge books opened on the most interesting place. Want – just sit down, want – read works of Turkish classical and well-known poets, want – shoot and tell about them.
It is impossible to ignore or pass by!
In General, all those who arrive in Istanbul, note the incredible contrast of the city, an incredible number of historical monuments, the grandeur of the most famous mosques, the ability to sell everything and everywhere, … the list goes on.
But it is necessary to note one more feature of this giant metropolis – a great well thought-out infrastructure, successful “vpisyvalas” modernity among the historical objects, organization of transport and all the activities of the city authorities.
To be fair, in this city there is something to learn from our actions, governors and all who are more accustomed to complaining about the lack of money than to do in their cities so that tourists could make the report even on conventional benches. Continue reading
Every collector once think of what, for example, the most expensive coin or the rare brand. In his collection of the most valuable and how he would like to expand? But the rating of the most valuable folios already decided. It includes seven publications three manuscripts.
The absolute champion in value is considered to be a manuscript by Leonardo da Vinci Leicester code”. At Christie’s auction in 1994 for the folio was paid for 30.8 million dollars. Experts say that in the coming years the price barrier is unlikely to be someone overcome.
But in December of this year can be set to record the cost of the printed book. Auction house Sotheby’s is going to put on the auction and complete copy of the first edition of the book “Birds of America” by John James Audubon, American painter-animalist, ornithologist and naturalist. By the way, in the world there are only 119 copies, and 108 of them are in the national museums, and 11 are for private collectors. The sale of this book will surely make a sensation among the experts. The price of this publication, which will participate in the auction on December 7, is estimated at about nine million dollars.
That “Birds of America” – is a unique publication, no doubt. It was first published in 1827-1838. And during this time the book was printed only 200 copies. This is due to its giant dimensions – each page has a height 127 see a Full copy of the book consists of 435 prints prints, painted by hand. The size of each engravings depicting birds in natural size – 90 60 see Continue reading
Russian poets and writers came up with a lot of new words: substance, thermometer (Lomonosov), industry (Karamzin), botch (Saltykov-Shchedrin), to take a (Dostoevsky), incompetent (Nord), tired physically (Khlebnikov).
Interesting facts about the writers.
Pushkin more than 70 epigraphs, Gogol – not less than 20, almost as much Turgenev.
Korney Chukovsky actually called Nikolai Vasilyevich Korneychukov.
Voltaire made fun of the Duke of Rohan for his arrogance. The Duke ordered his servants to beat Voltaire that was done. Voltaire caused the Duke to a duel, but the Duke refused, as Voltaire was not a nobleman.
Starting to work on a new piece, Balzac was locked in the room for one or two months, and firmly closed the shutters, that they did not penetrate the light. He wrote candlelight, dressed in a Bathrobe, 18 hours daily.
Mark TWAIN was born in 1835, when the vicinity of Earth flew Halley’s comet. He predicted that he would die during her next appearance. So, in 1910. Continue reading
From childhood we know, the ball is round and the Gray wolf wanted to eat little Red riding Hood. However, the authors of fairy tales a lot of things concealed from the public. Some secret and not very facts about tales listed in this article.
The brothers Grimm believed female are more prone to bad actions than men. In total in their fairy tales there are 23 witches and evil 16 of Macek, while the fathers of the despots of all 3 and the sorcerer one.
Walt Disney was doubtless an optimist. In his interpretation of the tale of the little Mermaid, Ariel marries a Prince. In the original version unhappy polyrinka commits suicide by throwing themselves into the sea and into the foam.
The younger brother of James Barry became the prototype for his character Peter pan. The story is about a boy who will never grow up, was written in honor of the deceased fourteen-year-old relative of the writer.
In the original language of “the Jungle Book” Bagira has a male. Most likely translators smeared sense when translated as the word “Panther” in Russian female.
Alexander Pushkin lived plagiarism. So the plot of a fairy tale “the fisherman and the fish” was borrowed from the brothers Grimm. The product was called “the Fisherman and his wife”. Also, Alexander Pushkin suffered excessive pride, telling everyone that it is the tale Of Tsar Saltan” by only one letter “f” in the word “fleet”. All depends on that, “f” is a relatively new letter in Russian alphabet and the writer was proud that adhered to the traditional Russian ancient traditions. Continue reading